ISO 45001:2018 - Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems: Step by step implementation guide Part-01

ISO 45001:2018 - Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems: Step by step implementation guide- Part-01:

Introduction to ISO 45001:2018 OHSMS
An Occupational Health and Safety Management System (OHSMS), is a collaborative and systematic approach to effectively managing occupational health and safety risks. 
 OHSMS helps companies to improve their occupational health and safety performance continually. Moreover OHSMS provides a framework for companies to comply with health and safety ordinances, regulations, state laws and compliance obligations.

 OHSMS systems primarily direct organizations in the following ways:

 1. Identify occupational health and safety hazards.
2. Examine the risks associated with the identified hazards.
3. Establish controls to minimize the risks.
4. Define goals for health and safety performance.
5. Create a plan to achieve the goals.
6. Monitor performance against the targets and goals.
7. Report performance results.
8. Review OHSMS results and continuously improve.

National standards used for implementing OHSMS, before the introduction of ISO 45001:2018 include:
 BS OHSAS 18001
CSA Z1000
Comparing Standards

BS OHSAS 18001: (Occupational Health & Safety Assessment Series) is a globally recognized British Standard for occupational health and safety management systems. Its purpose is to assist different types of organizations who endeavour to perform well in aspects of occupational health and safety.
Companies worldwide recognize the need to monitor and enhance their health and safety performance. To do so, they need to implement an occupational health and safety management system (OHSMS). 
 OHSAS 18001 helps companies to develop a healthy and safe working environment, by providing a framework to achieve the following:
 • Determine health and safety risks and minimize them to an acceptable level
• Minimize the likelihood of accidents
• Establish a framework to assess legal compliance
• Improve overall health and safety performance

ANSI is the American National Institute standard. The American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) serves as its Secretariat. The Accredited Standards Committee, Z10, approved the standard in 1999. 
 • The standard’s scope is “minimum requirements of occupational health and safety management systems”. 
• The standard’s purpose is “[as a] Management tool to minimize the risk of illnesses, injury and fatalities in the workplace.”
• The application of the standard includes organizations of all types and sizes, including contractors.
 While making the standard, the Z10 Committee adopted inputs from OSHA, US industry, ISO Quality and environmental systems and the International Labor Organization. 

 CSA Z1000-6:
The Canadian Standard Association (CSA), published a standard for Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems in 2006, known as CSA Z1000-6. This standard lays out the conditions for the creation, enforcement and improvement of a Health and Safety Management System.
 The elements are similar to those outlined in other management systems and include the following:
• Management Commitment and Participation
• Health and Safety Planning
• Implementation of Controls
• Performance Evaluation 
• Management Review 
• Continuous Improvement

Other Standards
ISO 14001:
The need for a globally recognized standard for occupational health and safety management systems, has always been felt. Professionals have had the ISO 9001 - quality management system and ISO 14001 - environmental management system, since the early 2000s. However different systems for occupational health and safety, were being followed in different countries. 
Experts claim that the development of the new ISO 45001 OHSMS standard, is well timed, because it matches the recent publication of the newly revised ISO 9001:2015 (quality management system) and the ISO 14001:2015 (environmental management system). Both employ a risk-based structure. 
 The shared common requirements of the three most widely used international standards, should empower organizations to incorporate them more easily into their organizational processes.

OHSAS 18001:2007:
OHSAS 18001:2007 has been the most important standard for occupational health and safety management systems and has been adopted by many companies, operating in countries other than the UK. Since it has been employed and observed in multiple organizations, it is important to compare the two standards (OHSAS 18001 and ISO 45001). This will serve as an aid, to help organizations transition.

What are the major differences between OHSAS 18001 and ISO 45001?
The primary difference is that ISO 45001 focuses on the interface of an organization and its business environment; OHSAS 18001 concentrates on managing OH&S hazards and internal issues. However the standards differ in other ways.

History of ISO 45001:
ISO 45001 was initially created on 25th October 2013. The committee responsible for its development is known as ISO/PC 283. It is estimated that a minimum of seventy countries worked on the drafting process of its development. 
Planning the standard and the drafting of issues continued until December 2015. From this period until the first draft of its development in 2017, it failed to achieve adequate support from ISO members. In 2017, a revised second draft was approved and this was made into the final draft. The standard was published on 12 March 2018.


The ISO 45001 standard comprises the Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) model. This model offers a mechanism for organizations to plan what they require, so as to mitigate the probability of OH&S damages. 
The “Plan” part of the model, should reflect concerns relating to health problems in the long term and absenteeism at work. The measures used, should address the factors that contribute to accidents at work. 
For instance, many workers undergo stress, which is classed as a psycho-social risk. Stress is considered to be one of the main problems at work in the current economy. Plans can also include measures to deal with stress management.
The ISO 45001 standard directs top management to "own" the workplace and the hazards associated with it. Top management must prove their commitment through leadership, to make sure that workers have the sufficient skills, knowledge and expertise. 
Moreover top management should put in place effective controls in the “Do” phase of the PDCA model; these are known as operational controls. Encouraging workers' participation and advice is necessary, in order to be able to enforce better occupational health and safety measures.

The “Check” part of the PDCA model, lists all of the main constituents that should be resolved, to make sure that the system is operational. This includes opportunities for enhancement and improvement in the “Act” phase.
The “Act” part of the PDCA model is the improvement part of the process and is referred to, in the standard, as “Continual Improvement”. 
It is a recurring activity that needs to be maintained, in order to enhance performance.

Migration and Features
Companies need to migrate from OHSAS 18001 to ISO 45001. As part of this migration, numerous steps must be followed, in order to upgrade the existing management system to the new standard. The following sequence is recommended:
1) Analyze interested parties (i.e. individuals or organizations that can influence or be influenced by your organization’s activities). Moreover, analyze internal and external factors that might influence the organization’s business; then check how the risks can be managed with the help of the management system.
2) Recognize the scope of the system, while reflecting what your management system is bound to deliver.
3) Utilize the data and information to: institute the organization’s processes, for risk evaluation and assessment and to develop the key performance indicators (KPIs) for the organization’s activities.
Once the organization has resolved the knowledge and tools of OHSAS 18001, the organization can re-utilize most of what it already has, in the new management system. Thus, even if the approaches of the two management systems are different, the fundamental tools are identical.

What is new in ISO 45001, compared with other Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) standards? How will its migration influence small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)? The short answer is: a preventive approach is upgraded with risk-based thinking.
Risk-based thinking, to manage health and safety risks and opportunities in ISO 45001 is not new, nor does it contradict earlier OHS standards. However, the preventive action of the management system is upgraded with a risk management approach. 
The Focus is the workplace. The standard does not interact with products or product quality, or how they should be utilized or sustained. The focal point of the ISO 45001 standard is the workplace. There is a requirement to list significant hazards in the workplace, in order to eradicate or mitigate them.

Organizations need to be proactive. In a rapidly growing and creative world, the requirement is felt for organizations to be proactive rather than reactive. Organizations should foresee actions, instead of waiting for regulations and codes of practice to be instituted.
Most organizations are small or medium-sized enterprises and ISO 45001 is applicable to them, just as it is to larger enterprises. The easy-to-follow risk oriented approach in ISO 45001 is highly implementable for SMEs and is well matched with the approaches used in OHSAS 18001.

Certification and Advantages:
It is expected that a large number of organizations will employ ISO 45001 to build an effective occupational health and safety management system. In addition, significant numbers of organizations will want to receive the recognition that comes with having ISO 45001 certification. Certification exhibits to external parties that an organization has attained compliance with a particular standard.
The potential dividends of implementing the ISO 45001 OHSMS is enormous, if the standard is implemented effectively. The standard mandates that Occupational Health and Safety risks in an organization, be identified and managed. For the risk management approach to be effective, it is important that the system is continually improved, to surpass the organization’s ever-changing objectives. 
The enforcement of the standard ensures compliance with current legislation. The activities envisioned by the ISO 45001 standard can help to develop an organization’s reputation as a “safe place to work”. There are many advantages, ranging from minimizing insurance costs to elevating workers’ morale, together with the improved ability to meet the organization’s strategic targets.
How will the new ISO 45001 standard perform for users of, for example OHSAS 18001? It is expected that users of OHSMS standards, such as OHSAS 18001 and the ILO-OSH Guidelines, will easily be able to take up ISO 45001, as it does not contradict these standards. In addition, ISO 45001 empowers organizations with the opportunity of incorporating OHSMS into their integrated business processes.
The advantages of implementing ISO 45001, aside from the fact that it is now the accepted new international standard by consensus, is that it will naturally integrate with earlier management approaches, especially in the area of business risks. It will thus act as an added advantage to SMEs, when opting to have more than one standard.







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ISO 45001:2018 - Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems Standard Summary


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