ISO 45001:2018 - Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems: Step by step implementation guide Part-02

ISO 45001:2018 - Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems: Step by step implementation guide Part-02
Publication of ISO 45001:2018
Illness and Injury
The awaited international standard for occupational health and safety management systems (OHSMS), is envisioned to modify workplace practices globally. 

ISO 45001:2018 OHSMS, offers a vigorous and effective set of processes, for improving work safety in global supply chains. 

The standard is designed to help organizations and industries of all sizes. It is also expected to reduce workplace injuries and illnesses globally.

The International LaborOrganization (ILO) calculated workplace injuries and fatalities in 2017. According to the ILO data, 2.78 million fatal accidents happen at workplaces annually. In other words, seven thousand, seven hundred people die each day because of work-related illness and injury. 

Moreover, there are approx. 374 million incidents of non-fatal, work-related illness and damage each year. Most of these incidents cause loss-of-time injuries, meaning absenteeism from work. These facts are a sober reflection of the contemporary reality of workplace damage and illness. Moreover people and businesses run the risk of experiencing illness and damage, as a consequence of merely doing their job to earn a living.

Global Solution:
Is ISO 45001 the answer to the problem of occupation health and safety performance globally? ISO 45001 is expected to change the situation by empowering companies to perform better. It offers legislative and regulatory bodies, industry and other interested parties, practical management solutions for ensuring worker safety across all industries. 

The recognized ISO standardization framework can be utilized to promote better health and safety conditions. Moreover it is a practical solution for original equipment manufacturers, contractual partners and production houses. This management system can assist everyone to achieve a safer workplace, irrespective of their nationality and regional dynamics.

What makes ISO 45001 internationally important? International experts and writers worked together to produce the standard. It is the result of a close collaboration from contributors from more than seventy nation states. 

As discussed, the ISO 45001 OHSMS has been produced by the ISO committee ISO/PC 283. Also, the British Standards Institution (BSI) served as the committee’s secretariat for the development of the standard.

Why is ISO 45001 better than OHSAS 18001? ISO 45001 was developed in collaboration with other ISO management systems. 

Developers tried to ensure it is an easy-to-use framework, compatible with the latest versions of the ISO 9001 QMS and the ISO 14001 EMS. Companies who have already implemented other ISO standards, will find it easy to implement ISO 45001.

Substituting OHSAS 18001
ISO 45001 works as a substitute for OHSAS 18001, the world’s most widely used reference for occupational health and safety standards. 

Companies already compliant with and certified by OHSAS 18001, will have a 3 year migration period to comply with the new ISO 45001 standard. However certification is not a requirement of the ISO 45001 standard.

Gap Analysis:
If your organization is currently using the OHSAS 18001 standard, migrating to ISO 45001:2018 is a beneficial solution, as multiple clause requirements of ISO 45001:2018 are equivalent or analogous. Note however, that clauses may utilize different terminology or be arranged in a different order.

Guide to existing OHSAS 18001 users:

• Get  a copy of the standard from the ISO Store at: or from your national ISO representative.
• Examine the changes in the standard, or use the comparative matrix in this course as a free resource.
• Conduct a 'gaps analysis' between ISO 45001 and your current OHSAS 18001 system.
• Apply the necessary actions to fill any identified gaps.

Employee Participation
The internal and external issues of organizations need to be addressed, in a business context analysis perspective, with occupational health and safety in mind, as per Clause 4.1 of the ISO 45001:2018 standard. This mandates the company to recognize systematically and study the various issues which effect their business operations, as well as the management system.

Clause 4.2 focuses on the need for organizations to address workers’ needs and expectations, as well as the needs and expectations of other effected parties, in the matter of workplace health and safety. The company is required to address these issues through a verifiable occupational health and safety management system. Clause 4.3 relates to scope. Unlike in OHSAS 18001, scope should only be defined when clauses 4.1 and 4.2 have been adequately addressed.

Similar to ISO 9001 and ISO 14001, there is a high stress in ISO 45001:2018, on the responsibility top management has, to enforce consultation with and participation from workers, as per clause 5.2. In addition, top management must encourage workplace safety and employee health and monitor health and safety performance, ensuring the effectiveness of the OHSMS.

Organizational leadership is accountable for developing health and safety policy. Moreover, policy should be agreed with the organization's labor union representatives and health and safety personnel, where applicable. As per clause 5.3 of the standard, all roles, responsibilities and authorities must be properly defined, communicated and documented. However the accountability of top management for the overall OHSMS system cannot be delegated.

Clause 5.4 of the ISO 45001:2018 OHSMS, is a much improved clause, compared with OHSAS 18001. It documents information related to assisting the participation, involvement and communication of all workers, at every level in an organization, with the occupational health and safety management system. 

Many organizations do not have a management representative or a health and safety representative. If there is no union representative in an organization, the ISO 45001:2018 OHSMS standard will not mandate this on companies. However top management must ensure worker participation and consultation by other means.

Additions and Improvements
lause 6.2 of ISO 45001:2018, deals with incentives for organizational improvement and performance evaluation (see also clause 9.1.1). Clauses 7.1 to 7.5, deal with various organizational support functions, including the availability of resources, the competency of workers to perform work safely, health and safety awareness of workers, visitors and contractors, health and safety communication and the requirements for documenting information.

Important points relating to support requirements:

• Communications are evaluated for their effectiveness.
• Employee awareness includes: policies, hazardous risks, employees/contractors role re. health and safety performance (e.g. the awareness to remove oneself from ‘serious danger’). 
• The documentation of information is similar to ISO 9001 and ISO 14001. This encompasses how an organization creates, maintains and retains information that is compulsory for the OHSMS.

Clauses 8.1 to 8.2, deal with organizational operations, preparedness planning, identifying risk and hazards, controls and emergency situations. Risks and hazards should be addressed by implementing a hierarchy of controls. The management of change and operational modifications, is described in clause 8.1.3. This includes managing instruments, circumstances, employees, obligations, legal issues and compliance.

What would be the impact to your organizational reputation, if one of your suppliers or contractors was involved in a major occupational health and safety incident? ISO 45001 requires organizations to analyze risks associated with an organization’s reputation.
Procurement and outsourcing is covered in the new standard, whereby it is required to scrutinize purchased goods and services, in relation to health and safety requirements. In addition, there is an improved requirement relating to the health and safety of contractors, regarding the requirement to ensure a safe and healthy work environment.

ISO 45001:2018, Clause 9, includes enhanced and extended evaluation of performance, compared with the British OHSAS 18001 standard:

• Compliance evaluation has been extended to incorporate the means and regularity of evaluation; the organization is required to maintain knowledge and awareness of the organization's compliance. 

• Internal audit results need to be discussed with workers. 

• The management review clause has improved the inputs and requirements of OHSAS 18001. It has added risks and opportunities,  improvements, communications, management system effectiveness and the issues of interested parties.

Risk and Prevention
ISO 45001:2018 Clause 10, removes the linguistic reference to ‘preventive’ action, as it is already covered in the risk management phase. Organizations have to deal with incidents, correct the problem, investigate the root cause and take corrective action. The corrective action is then evaluated to check its effectiveness. 
The organization is required to show that it has implemented the values of risk management and continual improvement through: root cause investigation, in-depth analysis, modified risk analysis and required operations. Organizations must be able to prove that they are using the outputs from performance analysis and evaluation, to recognize and resolve gaps and opportunities.

Risks and Opportunities
In clauses 6.1.1, and 6.1.4, organizations need to identify significant risks and opportunities concerned with the factors of the organization’s context, as referenced in clauses 4.1 and 4.2

These risks and opportunities need to be identified and considered and action needs to be taken to optimize performance. Risk management concerns not just hazards, but also internal and external issues and the needs and expectations of interested parties. 

All these factors together influence the capability of the management system to yield its intended results i.e. improved health and safety performance at work.


Part-06: ISO 45001:2018 - Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems: Step by step implementation guide


Part-05: ISO 45001:2018 - Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems: Step by step implementation guide

Part-04: ISO 45001:2018 - Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems: Step by step implementation guide

Part-03: ISO 45001:2018 - Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems: Step by step implementation guide

Part-02: ISO 45001:2018 - Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems: Step by step implementation guide

Part-01: ISO 45001:2018 - Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems: Step by step implementation guide

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ISO 45001:2018 - Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems Standard Summary


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